Dr. Sandra Nnamani
KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS:
Assisted reproductive therapies (ARTs) treatments for infertility, including in vitro fertilization procedures, embryo adoption, embryo hosting, and therapeutic insemination. Basal body temperature (BBT) Lowest body temperature of a healthy person taken immediately after awakening and before getting out of bed. Induced abortion Intentionally results in termination of pregnancy. In-vitro fertilization; fertilization in a culture dish or test tube,
Infertility decreases the capacity to conceive;
Rhythm method, Contraceptive method in which a woman abstains from sexual intercourse during the ovulatory phase of her menstrual cycle; Calendar method, Semen analysis; examination of semen specimen to determine liquefaction, volume, pH, sperm density, and normal morphology
Sterilization Process or act that renders a person unable to produce children, Therapeutic donor insemination (TDI) Introduction of donor semen by instrument injection into the vagina or uterus for impregnation, Vacuum aspiration, Uterine aspiration method of early abortion
The reproductive spectrum is the focus of this chapter, covering voluntary control of fertility, interruption of pregnancy, and impaired fertility. The nursing role in the care of women varies, depending on whether management of these fertility-related concerns is associated with the assessment of needs, investigation of problems, or implementation of interventions.
Factors Affecting Female Fertility:
CONGENITAL OR DEVELOPMENTAL FACTORS
Abnormal external genitals, Absence of internal reproductive structures
Pituitary or hypothalamic hormone disorder,
Adrenal gland disorder,
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia,
Disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis,
Amenorrhea after discontinuing OCP,
Increased prolactin levels.
Tubal motility reduced,
Absence of fimbriated end of tube,
Absence of a tube,
Inflammation within the tube,
Endometrial and myometrial tumors,
Asherman syndrome (uterine adhesions or scar tissue).
Factors Affecting Male Fertility
STRUCTURAL OR HORMONAL DISORDERS
Low testosterone levels,
Testicular damage caused by mumps
Sexually transmitted infections,
Exposure to workplace hazards such as radiation or toxic substances,
Exposure of scrotum to high temperatures.
Changes in sperm (Smoking, heroin, marijuana, amyl nitrate, butyl nitrate, ethyl chloride, methaqualone; Monoamine oxidase)
Decrease in sperm (Hypopituitarism, Debilitating or chronic disease, Trauma, Gonadotropic inadequacy)
Decrease in libido (Heroin, methadone, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and barbiturates)
Impotence (Alcohol, Antihypertensive medications).
Vladimir Chimaobi Ugwu reporting, Obinwannem News